Examining the temporary space formation and visitor behavior relationship in fair organizations through syntactic analysis

Thesis Type: Postgraduate

Institution Of The Thesis: Istanbul Technical University, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Architecture, Turkey

Approval Date: 2017

Thesis Language: Turkish

Student: Murat Eryeli

Supervisor: Mehmet Emin Şalgamcıoğlu


Buildings as various settings that are also reflecting a variety in terms of architectural programming are designed to meet people's needs. Within the cities, a variety of buildings serving various purposes emerged. People want to solve the problem of housing primarily through their long-life cycle. The problem of housing, extending from caves, which are the first known accommodation places, to modern housing structures, has stepped into human life in this way. The people who had solutions to the problem of housing with the modern housing structures built today, have created different space configurations and settings to enrich the social life. The major examples among these spaces are temples (religious buildings), education areas, health areas and commercial areas. In the modern world, each building is now specialized and enriched in terms of its meaning and configuration. Spaces that serve more than one purpose within a proposed architectural programmed have also been established. Today, exhibitions are a good example of the diversity in terms of functions and temporal order. These structures have come to forefront where exhibition and marketing are conducted together. Organizations have created their own spaces for the promotion and marketing of products from different sectors in fair structures. Promotional and commercially marketed products have led to the emergence of new space configurations within the building according to their size and features. The correct understanding of the different functions related to each other by the participants and the establishment of behavioral relations have been considered as important for the fairs. This thesis study examines the behavioral relations with the temporary space constructions which are created for the promotion and marketing of the products in fairs. Trade fairs are organized with the aim of promoting specific products or an activity from any industry to the local, national and international organizations and visitors. Organizations form exhibition types depending on the product characteristics of participating companies. Depending on the exhibition types, different space configurations appear within the same structure. Within the scope of the study, it is aimed to examine and discuss the behavior types of visitors who visit the temporary space setups established in order to exhibit and market the products of participants in fairs. This analysis and discussion provides examples of designers for organizations to be organized. The first part of the thesis describes the purpose, scope and method of research. The main topic of the study is to investigate how the space organization in the fair events organized by different sectors are affecting the behavioral responses of visitors I terms of experiencing these spaces and especially their movement and interaction with the space itself. Today, fairs are physical spaces where promotions of products are conducted. Within these physical spaces, various products from different disciplines are exhibited. The products exhibited in the fairs within a certain architectural structure constitute their own limited display areas in the space with their own unique characteristics. In the fairs, various formal settings move to semantic processes and reveal specific behavioral processes on the way. The perceptual and cognitive processes produced by products exhibited in fairs and behavioral attitudes of visitors are important for organizations. While the participants in the space give meaning to the physical space with certain visual, auditory and dimensional perception processes, they want to perform action towards the products displayed. The continuous and refreshed flow towards the exhibited objects is made possible by the perception and correct orientation created in the space. The aim of the study is to examine the transformation of the perceptual and cognitive processes in the fairgrounds into behavior of individuals. Investigating the relationship between behavior patterns and spatial configuration due to space configuration is also crucial. Relations that emerged on the editing and experience of these deliberative exhibition spaces will be discussed by taking CNR Expo Yeşilköy as an example. Relations that appear will have the potential to be a guide to the use and design of fairs in that sense. Secondly, the concept of space and the perceptual and cognitive processes will be investigated conceptually. In general terms, the physical and semantic phenomena that make up the space will be examined following the definition of space. The conceptual studies and the factors affecting the perceptual and cognitive processes of the physical and semantic spaces will be revealed. The perceptual and cognitive processes will be discussed through the temporary spaces of fairs and the behaviors within the space will be examined by correlating the syntactic data and observations in relation with the space syntax methodology. Next, general information and development process of the fair structures and previous studies about the development of the fair structures and related settings will be examined. The historical process of markets, fairs and exhibitions which are the starting point of the concept of fair will be explained. The effectiveness of the fairs today on product promotion and marketing will be examined and information about fairs and fairgrounds which are organized in our country will be provided. The previous studies in the literature about exhibition spaces in terms of their configurations and behavioral patterns of visitor relationship is examined. Temporary space configurations will also be investigated to find out the examples of exhibition fair systems created by the products exhibited. In the context of the literature study carried out within the scope of the thesis, the spatial organization of fair organizations and the visitor behavior with observation methods have been put forward. The purpose of the research is to reveal the behavioral relationships among temporary spaces. In this direction, the method that is used primarily in field study is 'space syntax' as a quantitative method. The method of spatial arrangement allows us to investigate of the syntactic values at critical thresholds of the configurations established in the spatial configuration and the quantitative deliberations about the space. The 'Syntax 2D' program, licensed from the University of Michigan, is used in the research to carry out the method of spatial configuration. In the case study conducted to investigate the interactions of critical threshold points of temporary space configuration and social behavior relations, isovist area, isovist perimeter, integration, circularity and connectivity valves as syntactic values were obtained. In order to make the analysis of space order or spatial hierarchy more consistent, the information gathered based on observation in the research will also be evaluated with syntactic values. The syntactic data obtained at the critical thresholds connecting the different temporary space configurations programmed in the same fair structure will be evaluated by comparing them with the frequency values obtained by observations at the gate count points. The work was carried out at three different fair organizations organized at the CNR Expo Exhibition Center in Istanbul. These organizations are made up of temporary space created by different types of fairs and products of different sizes. The study focused on environment behavior relationship of visitors in these temporary spaces and conducted a comparative field study among the plan types and their use through the three organizations. It reveals the similarities and differences between the temporary space organizations created in the same structure and the behavioral relations established with the individuals. As a result, conceptual background relating to the morphology of the space is set with a theoretical framework in this study. The physical and semantic phenomena in which the space was created are revealed by the literature study. It is conceptualized that the individuals in the space understand it with the perceptual and cognitive processes and carry out the behavioral actions accordingly. Later, historical and spatial developments of the exhibition areas selected for the study were reported. Three different fairs organized at the CNR Exhibition Center, which are structurally and semantically mentioned, are examined within the scope of the study on space-behavior relations in the organization. The study was evaluated including the literature study and the temporary space constructions created in the same structure were evaluated comparatively. Conclusions have been drawn about the situations where behavioral relationships resemble and dissociate in transient spaces. Consequently, thesis study focuses on the examination of acts of behavior at the temporary space configurations of different fair organizations arranged at the fairground. In future studies, by enriching the theoretical framework discussed by this thesis, like focusing on the characteristics of exhibiting types within the fair organizations, also the relations between the act of shopping and the design of the space especially at the temporary space constructions could be handled. In addition, the productivity of act within fair organizations could be examined by integrating the spatial setups for promotion and advertisement outside the fairgrounds with the study. The study could be diversified with further discussions on the relations of the act of shopping, social interactions, perceptional and cognitive processes of different space configurations and movement performances. Study is carried out of various syntactic parameters within the scope of accessibility. In future studies, adding new parameters in terms of accessibility and visibility could expand the argument of this study.