52nd ISOCARP Congress 2016, Durban, South Africa, 12 - 16 September 2016, pp.1-10
21st century is a period when the globalization penetrates the life. There are some
positive developments such as equity in information accessibility via internet and efforts for creating/designing inclusive public spaces. On the other hand, vibrant and crowded public spaces have become targets as a result of globalization of terrorist attacks. Violence and conflicts have been moved to urban areas, and refugee flows which accelerated due to the armed conflict/civil war in some countries, such as Syria, Iraq, Yemen etc., have turned into a crisis that affected all of Middle East and European cities. These happenings necessitate reconsidering the safety paradigm.
Turkey, because of its geographical location, is one of the most affected countries by both terrorist attacks and refugee flows. Meanwhile, conflicts between security forces and terrorist groups in Eastern and South Eastern parts of the country that have been transferred from rural areas to city centers bring the matter of re-organization and transformation of these areas into question. On February of 2016, the President of Turkey announced that some part of south eastern cities such as Sur, Cizre and Silopi, which have demolished due to the conflict, will be reconstructed in detail. Thus, Turkey is on the verge of transforming the cities according to safety paradigms, and it is a necessity to reconsider urban planning and design of urban open spaces in the context of terror and violence.
The aim of this study is to examine the transformation and re-organization of cities,
especially the southeastern cities of Turkey which are going to be planned and designed
after demolitions during the conflict in terms of the safety perspective. Within this scope, we will firstly investigate the changing paradigms on the safety issue as a result of the
globalization. Secondly we will compare latest examples of passive safety measures and
replanning/redesigning approaches in the world with the planning and designing approach of the reconstruction of eastern cities of Turkey from safety perspective. Thirdly, we will discuss what should be new tools of urban planning and design for preventing violence and terrorist attacks in cities.