A 432 MHz Class-D Power Amplifier with 60% Power Efficiency for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

Ozturk F., Ferhanoğlu O., Yelten M. B.

19th International Conference on Synthesis, Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Methods, and Applications to Circuit Design, SMACD 2023, Funchal, Portugal, 3 - 05 July 2023 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/smacd58065.2023.10192250
  • City: Funchal
  • Country: Portugal
  • Keywords: 432 MHz, Capsule endoscopy, class-D, CMOS, efficiency, power amplifier (PA), transmitter
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A 432 MHz power amplifier (PA) for wireless capsule endoscopy is presented. 180 nm CMOS process is used with a 1.8 V supply voltage. Class-D is chosen in order to meet the high-efficiency requirement. According to the post-layout Monte Carlo simulations, the PA achieves 60% power efficiency while delivering 3 dBm output power. Hence, this work demonstrates that the class-D topology can be employed in capsule endoscopes to deliver a maximized output power with significant efficiency and extend the battery life while the capsule advances in the gastrointestinal tract.