Titanium-based implants are key weight-bearing materials in biomedical engineering due to their excellent bulk mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Designing tissue-material interfaces of titanium implants is essential for an increase in osteointegration of engineered implant materials. Surface morphology is a crucial determinant in the construction of biocompatible and osteointegrative orthopedic and dental implants. Biomimicry of the structural features of bone, specifically its macro-to-mesoporosity, may enable the bone cells to osteointegrate, attain and maintain a physiological strain level. In this study, the surface chemistry and morphology of commercially pure titanium plates were modified using electrochemistry. Titanium oxide substrates were prepared by dual acid polishing and alkaline anodization using 0.1 M KOH in an electrochemical cell with a stainless steel cathode and an anodic voltage of 40 Vat 20 degrees C for 3 min. FE-SEM characterization revealed macro-mesoporous anodized titania surfaces, which were coated by hydroxyapatite using simulated body fluid and pulsed electrochemical deposition at 80 degrees C, while unprocessed commercially pure titanium surfaces were used as controls. The calcium phosphate deposit on titania plates was characterized as calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite using XRD, FTIR and FE-SEM, whereas the deposit on non-porous, non-functionalized titanium surfaces was characterized as carbonated apatite. The adhesion strength of the hydroxyapatite coated titania surfaces was 38 +/- 10 MPa, implying that these surfaces may be suitable for biological and chemical functionalization of medical implants to tune bioactivity, including delivering drugs. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.