This paper presents an experimental investigation of the flexural behavior of square hollow steel section (HSS) beams subjected to pure bending. Totally six unfilled and nine ultra high performance concrete (UHPC)-filled HSS beams were tested under four-point bending until failure. The effects of the steel tube thickness, the yield strength of the steel tube and the strength of concrete on moment capacity, curvature, and ductility of UHPC-filled HSS beams were examined. The performance indices named relative ductility index (RDI) and strength increasing factor (SIF) were investigated with regard to different height-to-thickness ratio of the specimens. The flexural strengths obtained from the tests were compared with the values predicted by Eurocode 4, AISC-LRFD and CIDECT design codes. The results showed that the increase in the moment capacity and the corresponding curvature is much greater for thinner HSS beams than thicker ones. Eurocode 4 and AISC-LRFD predict the ultimate moment capacity of the all UHPC-filled HSS beams conservatively.