Evaluating the prevalence of employees without written terms of employment in the European Union

Creative Commons License

Williams C. C. , Kayaoglu A.

EMPLOYEE RELATIONS, vol.39, no.4, pp.487-502, 2017 (Journal Indexed in SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1108/er-10-2016-0189
  • Title of Journal : EMPLOYEE RELATIONS
  • Page Numbers: pp.487-502
  • Keywords: European Union, Employee relations, Undeclared work, Laws and legislation, Written contracts, TAX COMPLIANCE, SAMPLING WEIGHTS, UNDECLARED WORK, PARTICIPATION, DETERRENCE, ECONOMY, EVASION, ILLEGAL, LESSONS


Purpose-Until now, there has been scant evidence on the proportion and characteristics of employees working without a written contract or terms of employment. To begin to fill this gap, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of employees without written contracts or terms of employment in the European Union (EU), examining whether they are unevenly distributed across countries and EU regions, and whether it is vulnerable population groups who are more likely to be without such written contracts.