This study aims to investigate effects of freshwater components in order to predict agglomeration behavior of silver nanoparticles coated with citrate (AgNP-Cit), polyvinylpyrrolidone (AgNP-PVP), and of TiO2 nanoparticles. Agglomeration studies were conducted in various media based on combinations of ions, natural organic matter (humic, fulvic acid) and surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate, alkyl ethoxylate), at a constant ionic strength of 10 mM over time for up to 1 week. Agglomeration level of AgNP-Cit and TiO2 was mostly dependent on the concentration of Ca2+ in media, and their size strongly increased to micrometer scale over 1 week. However, AgNP-Cit and TiO2 were stabilized to particle size around 500 nm in the presence of NOM, surfactants and carbonate over 1 week. AgNP-PVP maintained their original size in all media except in the presence of Mg2+ ions which led to significant agglomeration. Behavior of these engineered nanoparticles was similar in a natural freshwater medium. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.