Utilizing of Tincal Ore Wastes in Ceramic Industry

Özmen L., Yıldırım Y., Başoğlu D., Yücel O.

152nd Annual Meeting and Exhibition of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, TMS 2023, California, United States Of America, 19 - 23 March 2023, pp.1177-1188 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/978-3-031-22524-6_113
  • City: California
  • Country: United States Of America
  • Page Numbers: pp.1177-1188
  • Keywords: Boron, Ceramics, Environmental effects, Recycling and secondary recovery
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Boron mining is carried out as opencast/open pit mining in Turkey. The obtained boron ore is presented to the utilization of many industrial branches such as insulation fiberglass and ceramic glazes, after washing, distribution, and classification according to the size but most of commercial applications of borates require the use of refined borates (Briggs in Kirk–Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, 2001). Approximately 4.2 million tons (2 million tons based on B2O3) of boron were produced globally in 2016. In worldwide B2O3-based boron production, Eti Maden (Turkey) ranks first with a 50% share, USA with 25%, and other countries with 25% are trailing Turkey (Bor Sector Report, Eti Mine, 2009). It is known that, during the production of boron containing chemicals, some of these are spreading to environment (Karahan et al. in J Colloid Interface Sci 293:36, 2006; Sahin in Desalination 143:35, 2002). Boron-containing wastes coming out of the exploitation facilities are generally solid and in small dimensions, and also in pulp state. The studies related with the evaluation of boron waste demonstrate that the most appropriate evaluation method for the boron waste is storing the waste without harming the environment or regaining the boron within the waste and making the remaining minerals including clay suitable for the utilization of appropriate sectors (Christogerou et al. in Ceram Int 35:447, 2009). Boron containing wastes generating from production facilities are suitable raw materials for appropriate sectors when environmental impacts are being taken into consideration, too. In this study, the effect of various amounts of boron waste added to the ceramic body on forming and firing processes have been analyzed. This study has been carried out in order to provide information for bringing in this inert potential resource to the advantage of the country’s economy.