© 2016 Elsevier B.V.Sulfur is one of the most abundant elements on the crust of Earth, and it is an essential element for animals and plants. In addition to playing a vital role in living organisms, it has a very important use in industry as an ingredient in some chemicals, fertilizers, fungicides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and so on. There are limit values for sulfur content in many matrices, which explains why it is important to determine sulfur contents. This review aims to give an overview of historical development and importance of sulfur determination by high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS). We primarily focus on recent applications and their optimized parameters for the determination of sulfur in many matrices. The application of sulfur determination by HR CS AAS is evaluated and some scientific properties of sulfur determination by HR CS AAS are also presented.