An investigation into the gate rudder system design for propulsive performance using design of experiment method

Gürkan A. Y., Ünal U. O., Aktaş B., Atlar M.

Ship Technology Research, 2023 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/09377255.2023.2248721
  • Journal Name: Ship Technology Research
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), design of experiment (DoE), Energy-saving device (ESD), gate rudder system (GRS), optimisation‌, powering, propulsion‌, steering
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The Gate Rudder System (GRS) is an innovative energy-saving device integrating the steering and propulsion of ships. Despite demonstrated potential, optimal GRS design remains underexplored. This study used a Design of Experiment (DoE) approach to investigate the sensitivity of key design variables of the GRS on the ship's powering performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was employed to calculate the respective flow variables at each design point, and the most effective geometrical parameter was identified as the rudder angle based on the correlations. Surprisingly, the analyses revealed that the best powering performance was not observed with the highest rudder thrust force generated. Instead, the optimal design was found to be one that maximizes the overall energy savings by achieving the most favorable interaction between the propeller, hull, and GR. High-fidelity CFD validates results. This study bridges the gap in GRS design for powering efficiency, contributing to technology's performance optimisation.