Biomechanical Comparison of Tibial Eminence Fracture Fixation With High-Strength Suture, EndoButton, and Suture Anchor

Hapa O., BARBER F. A., Suner G., Ozden R., Davul S., BOZDAG E., ...More

ARTHROSCOPY-THE JOURNAL OF ARTHROSCOPIC AND RELATED SURGERY, vol.28, no.5, pp.681-687, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


Purpose: To biomechanically compare anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial bony avulsion fixation by suture anchors, EndoButtons (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA), and high-strength sutures subjected to cyclic loading. Methods: Type III tibial eminence fractures were created in 49 ovine knees, and 7 different types of repairs were performed. Each repair group contained 7 specimens. The repair groups were as follows: No. 2 FiberWire (Arthrex, Naples, FL); No. 2 UltraBraid (Smith & Nephew); No. 2 MaxBraid (Arthrotek, Warsaw, IN); No. 2 Hi-Fi (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL); No. 2 OrthoCord (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA); Ti-Screw suture anchor (Arthrotek); and titanium EndoButton. These constructs were cyclically loaded (500 cycles, 0 to 100 N, 1 Hz) in the direction of the native ACL and loaded to failure (100 mm/min). Endpoints included ultimate failure load (in Newtons); pullout stiffness (in Newtons per millimeter); cyclic displacement (in millimeters) after 100 cycles, between 100 and 500 cycles, and after 500 cycles; and mode of failure. Bone density testing was performed in all knees. Results: Bone density was not different among the groups. The EndoButton group had a higher ultimate failure load than the FiberWire, UltraBraid, Hi-Fi, and suture anchor groups (P < .05). The MaxBraid and OrthoCord groups had higher failure loads than the suture anchor group (P < .05). The MaxBraid group also had a higher failure load than the Hi-Fi group (P < .05). Stiffness was not statistically different for the various tested constructs. After 100 cycles, the EndoButton group had less displacement than the FiberWire, UltraBraid, MaxBraid, and Hi-Fi groups (P < .05). The suture anchor group had less displacement than the Hi-Fi and FiberWire groups (P < .05). The displacements of the different tested constructs between 100 and 500 cycles and total displacements after 500 cycles were not statistically different. The predominant failure mode was suture rupture. Conclusions: Under cyclic loading conditions in an ovine model, EndoButton fixation of tibial eminence fractures provided greater initial fixation strength than suture anchor fixation or fixation with various high-strength sutures except for OrthoCord. Clinical Relevance: During initial cyclic loading of ACL tibial eminence fractures, the strength of the repair construct should be taken into consideration because conventional suture repair even with ultrahighmolecular-weight polyethylene sutures may not provide enough strength.