Hybrid Reflection Modulation

Creative Commons License

Yiğit Z., Basar E., Wen M., Altunbaş İ.

IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol.22, no.6, pp.4106-4116, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/twc.2022.3223132
  • Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.4106-4116
  • Keywords: active RIS, index modulation (IM), Reconfigurable intelligent suraface (RIS), reflection modulation (RM)
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


IEEEReconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-empowered communication has emerged as a novel concept for customizing future wireless environments in a cost- and energy-efficient way. However, due to double path loss, existing fully passive RIS systems that purely reflect the incident signals into preferred directions attain an unsatisfactory performance improvement over the traditional wireless networks in certain conditions. To overcome this bottleneck, we propose a novel transmission scheme, named hybrid reflection modulation (HRM), exploiting both active and passive reflecting elements at the RIS and their combinations, which enables to convey information without using any radio frequency (RF) chains. In the HRM scheme, the active reflecting elements using additional power amplifiers are able to amplify and reflect the incoming signal, while the remaining passive elements can simply reflect the signals with appropriate phase shifts. Based on this novel transmission model, we obtain an upper bound for the average bit error probability (ABEP), and derive achievable rate of the system using an information theoretic approach. Moreover, comprehensive computer simulations are performed to prove the superiority of the proposed HRM scheme over existing fully passive, fully active and reflection modulation (RM) systems.