Molecules, vol.28, no.3, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
© 2023 by the authors.This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical composition and biological activity of propolis samples from different regions of Türkiye to characterize and classify 24 Anatolian propolis samples according to their geographical origin. Chemometric techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and a hierarchical clustering algorithm (HCA), were applied for the first time to all data, including antioxidant capacity, individual phenolic constituents, and the antimicrobial activity of propolis to reveal the possible clustering of Anatolian propolis samples according to their geographical origin. As a result, the total phenolic content (TPC) of the propolis samples varied from 16.73 to 125.83 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GAE/g) sample, while the number of total flavonoids varied from 57.98 to 327.38 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) sample. The identified constituents of propolis were phenolic/aromatic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and trans-cinnamic acid), phenolic aldehyde (vanillin), and flavonoids (pinocembrin, kaempferol, pinobanksin, and apigenin). This study has shown that the application of the PCA chemometric method to the biochemical composition and biological activity of propolis allows for the successful clustering of Anatolian propolis samples from different regions of Türkiye, except for samples from the Black Sea region.