PM2.5 originated from anthropogenic or natural sources is still a problem worldwide and highly associated with health impacts. In this study, mortality associated with PM2.5 was calculated using satellite retrievals and ground observations for Turkey and Iran. A high-resolution population dataset along with high resolution satellitederived PM2.5 estimations (all compositions and dust and sea-salt removed) developed from aerosol optical depth (AOD) data were used. Health risk estimations attributable to PM2.5 from ischemic heart disease and lung cancer along with all causes were calculated by applying the cause-specific mortality rates for Turkey and Iran for the year 2016. According to dust and sea-salt removed satellite-derived PM2.5, mortality estimations of 36967 in Turkey and 34491 in Iran were estimated by all causes. Meanwhile, estimations of 40583 in Turkey and 34153 in Iran were found using ground PM2.5 observations for provinces with monitoring stations. Province-based estimations were obtained with better spatially resolved PM2.5 concentrations. Estimations using ground observations were higher than ones using satellite-derived PM2.5 for Turkey, but similar for Iran, even without national coverage. However, estimations with all composition satellite-based PM2.5 were significantly higher in Iran than Turkey. Values estimated in this study were found to be higher than global studies for both countries.