Removal of azo dyes - tartrazine, carmoisine, and Allura Red - from wastewater using Spirulina biomass-immobilized alginate beads: equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics, desorption, and reusability

Saloğlu Dertli D. , Sahin O. I.

DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT, vol.220, pp.431-445, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 220
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.5004/dwt.2021.27010
  • Page Numbers: pp.431-445


In the present study, Spirulina microalgae-immobilized alginate beads (Alg-SP) were used as novel adsorbents for the adsorption of tartrazine, carmoisine, and Allura Red azo-dyes from wastewater. Synthesized Alg-SP beads were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. Maximum azo-dye removal percentages were achieved using 100 mg of Alg-SP beads with a ratio of 3.0% (w/v) within 2 h, and tartrazine, carmoisine, and Allura Red removal performances were determined to be 98%, 93%, and 82%, respectively. The adsorption data for azo-dyes onto Alg-SP beads were evaluated by several isotherm equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin, Halsey, and Harkins-Jura isotherm models, but were best described by the Langmuir and Harkins-Jura models as they gave the highest correlation. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, Weber-Morris, and Bangham models were investigated and dye adsorption onto Alg-SP beads was represented by pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models. After the adsorption process, the beads can easily be regenerated by NaOH and effectively reused over three cycles. Consequently, Spirulina microalgae-immobilized alginate beads have considerable potential for the adsorption of dyes from wastewater.