On the Compatibility of Electric Equivalent Circuit Models for Enhanced Flooded Lead Acid Batteries Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Aksakal C., Sisman A.

ENERGIES, vol.11, no.1, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/en11010118
  • Journal Name: ENERGIES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Electric equivalent circuit (EEC) models have been widely used to interpret the inner dynamics of all type of batteries. Added to this, they also have been used to estimate state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) values in combination with different methods. Four EEC models are considered for enhanced flooded lead acid batteries (EFB) which are widely used in micro hybrid vehicles. In this study, impedance and phase prediction capabilities of models throughout a frequency spectrum from 1 mHz to 10 kHz are compared with those of experimental results to investigate their consistency with the data. The battery is charged, discharged, and aged according to appropriate standards which imitates a lifetime of a micro hybrid vehicle battery under high current partial cycling. Impedance tests are repeated between different charge and health states until the end of the battery's lifetime. It is seen that adding transmission line elements to mimic the high porous electrode electrolyte interface to a double parallel constant phase element resistance model (ZARC) can increase the model data representing capability by 100%. The mean average percentage error (MAPE) of the conventional model with respect to data is 3.2% while the same value of the transmission line added model found as 1.6%. The results can be helpful to represent an EFB in complex simulation environments, which are used in automobile industry.