Occurrence and fate of antimicrobial triclocarban and its transformation products in municipal sludge during advanced anaerobic digestion using microwave pretreatment

Kor-Bicakci G., Abbott T., Çokgör E. , Eskicioglu C.

SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, cilt.705, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 705
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135862


This study, for the first time, investigated the impact of microwave pretreatment on the fate of the pervasive antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) that was already present in municipal sludge, before and during advanced anaerobic digestion (AD) under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. A range of microwave temperature (80 and 160 degrees C) and exposure duration (1 and 30 min) configurations were studied by employing ten bench-scale anaerobic digesters fed with mixed sludge at three different solids retention times (SRTs) including 20, 12, and 6 days. Seasonal changes influenced the levels of TCC in municipal sludge sampled from a plant employing the biological nutrient removal. Initial batch pretreatment studies showed that microwave irradiation itself can achieve TCC removal efficiencies up to 30 +/- 4 and 64 +/- 5% at 80 and 160 degrees C, respectively. The control digesters utilizing un-pretreated mixed sludge showed limited TCC removals, between 18 and 32% and 11-26% respectively, under thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures. On the other hand, the highest TCC elimination (78 +/- 2%) was obtained from the thermophilic digester utilizing microwaved sludge at 160 degrees C for 30 min at SRT of 12 days. The non-chlorinated carbanilide (a transformation product of TCC) was detected and quantified for the first time during conventional and microwave-pretreated anaerobic sludge digestion. The formation of carbanilide in biosolids through reductive dechlorination could be an indicator of efficient and complete TCC transformation. This research demonstrated that AD coupled with microwave pretreatment can be used to reduce environmental concentrations of TCC in municipal sludge and biosolids. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.