Contrastive self-supervised learning has recently benefited fMRI classification with inductive biases. Its weak label reliance prevents overfitting on small medical datasets and tackles the high intraclass variances. Nonetheless, existing contrastive methods generate resemblant pairs only on pixel-level features of 3D medical images, while the functional connectivity that reveals critical cognitive information is underexplored. Additionally, existing methods predict labels on individual contrastive representation without recognizing neighbouring information in the patient group, whereas interpatient contrast can act as a similarity measure suitable for population-based classification. We hereby proposed contrastive functional connectivity graph learning for population-based fMRI classification. Representations on the functional connectivity graphs are "repelled" for heterogeneous patient pairs meanwhile homogeneous pairs "attract" each other. Then a dynamic population graph that strengthens the connections between similar patients is updated for classification. Experiments on a multi-site dataset ADHD200 validate the superiority of the proposed method on various metrics. We initially visualize the population relationships and exploit potential subtypes. Our code is available at https: github.com/xuesongwang/ContrastiveFunctional-Connectivity-Graph-Learning.