The present study offers an overview of the recent developments in the application and modification of PVC membranes, focusing on some applications such as water and wastewater treatment, ion exchange, gas separation, pervaporation, electromembrane extraction, and support of composite membranes. For this purpose, an introduction to different types of the PVC polymers is provided first, and then, the application of PVC in the membrane fabrication is discussed. Various PVC membranes with their preparation methods and applications are reviewed and a detailed study is done on the modification methods of the PVC membranes. A deep literature review is performed to report the basics for selecting an appropriate method and membrane fabrication system with required processing conditions to produce membranes with desired morphology, performance and stability. Finally, the commercial PVC membranes are overviewed and the challenges and future perspective of these membranes are discussed.