Ground Support Design of Underground Openings in Seismically Active Mine: A Case Study from a Lead and Zinc Underground Mine

Ozturk C. A., Dogan E., Donmez M. S., Karaman E.

GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, vol.39, no.4, pp.2707-2726, 2021 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10706-020-01652-4
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.2707-2726
  • Keywords: Ground control, Mining-induced seismicity, Support design, Underground mining
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Ground control is multi-tasking and continuous process for the stability of underground openings. Balya underground lead and zinc mine is an important case study area due to its deepest working condition and the highest production amount among Turkish underground metalliferous mines. Mining-induced seismicity needs to be investigated especially for deep as well as tectonically active mine sites. Increasing depth will increase the stress around an underground opening that is a key factor of rock-burst hazard. Rock burst potential can be estimated from analytical approaches based on the relation between rock mass strength and stress around openings; however, one of the best way is to monitor the mining-induced seismicity. The support system is designed based on the actual geotechnical conditions determined from the excavated working face prior to support applications in the mine. Empirical methods are then used to make a decision about the support system. If the location is designated as a seismically active region based on micro-seismic event results, support components are selected as a dynamic support system that must absorb the energy released from the surrounding rock masses. The purpose of this study is to investigate seismically active locations according to mining-induced seismicity and the support system design principles for that locations to protect the openings against seismic loads.