This study investigates the effects of the use of two different types of recycled aggregates with known characteristics as backfill materials in newly built cantilever reinforced concrete retaining walls on the seismic performance of the walls. The physical properties of the recycled aggregates used as backfill materials were determined using aggregate tests. Subsequently, analytical studies for the reinforced concrete retaining walls containing recycled aggregates in the amounts of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% were performed under seismic and static loads and the results were compared with those obtained for the retaining walls containing 100% natural aggregate as the backfill material. The experimental and analytical studies showed that the internal friction angles and effective ground acceleration coefficients significantly affected the overturning moment and total active pressure values of the retaining walls. The results led to the conclusion that recycled aggregates can be partially or completely used as the backfill material in retaining walls. Moreover, the current conventional calculation methods for design and analysis were proven valid for the reinforced concrete retaining walls containing recycled aggregates as backfill materials.