Application of real-time PCR to determination of combined effect of antibiotics on Bacteria, Methanogenic Archaea, Archaea in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors

Aydin S., Ince B., İnce O.

WATER RESEARCH, vol.76, pp.88-98, 2015 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 76
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.watres.2015.02.043
  • Journal Name: WATER RESEARCH
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.88-98


This study evaluated the long-term effects of erythromycin-tetracycline-sulfamethoxazole (ETS) and sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (ST) antibiotic combinations on the microbial community and examined the ways in which these antimicrobials impact the performance of anaerobic reactors. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the effect that different antibiotic combinations had on the total and active Bacteria, Archae and Methanogenic Archae. Three primer sets that targeted metabolic genes encoding formylterahydrofolate synthetase, methyl-coenzyme M reductase and acetyl-coA synthetase were also used to determine the inhibition level on the mRNA expression of the homoacetogens, methanogens and specifically acetoclastic methanogens, respectively. These microorganisms play a vital role in the anaerobic degradation of organic waste and targeting these gene expressions offers operators or someone at a treatment plant the potential to control and the improve the anaerobic system.