Lithium-Free Batteries: Needs and Challenges

Ponnada S., Kiai M. S., Krishnapriya R., Singhal R., Sharma R. K.

Energy and Fuels, vol.36, no.12, pp.6013-6026, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.2c00569
  • Journal Name: Energy and Fuels
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, Applied Science & Technology Source, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Environment Index, Pollution Abstracts, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.6013-6026
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 American Chemical Society.Lithium-free metal batteries are currently emerging as a viable substitute for the existing Li-ion battery technology, especially for large-scale energy storage, ease of problems with lithium availability, high cost, and safety concerns. However, the economic benefits of lithium-free batteries, which are often mentioned, have not been studied in detail until recently. This paper aims to bridge the gap between academics and industry by advocating the best practices for measuring performance and proposing recommendations concerning essential parameters, including capacity, cyclability, Coulombic efficiency, and electrolyte consumption in novel lithium-free batteries. Here, the monovalent, divalent, and multivalent lithium-free metal batteries are investigated. Finally, the technology roadmap of these battery technologies and their current applications, commercialization, and future technologies are discussed to open a window for promoting the commercial application of lithium-free metal batteries.