3D-printed actuator-based beam-steering approach for improved physical layer security in visible light communication

Erdem M. C., Gurcuoglu O., PANAYIRCI E., Kurt G. K., Ferhanoğlu O.

APPLIED OPTICS, vol.61, no.18, pp.5375-5380, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 61 Issue: 18
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1364/ao.458461
  • Journal Name: APPLIED OPTICS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, MEDLINE, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.5375-5380
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, we present the design, manufacture, and implementation of a 3D-printed lens scanner-based beam steering for use in visible light communication (VLC) applications. The 5 cm x 5 cm scanner is designed for low-cost 3D printing with fused deposition modeling using polylactic acid. Scanning is facilitated through electromagnetic actuation of the lens frame, carrying a conventional 25 mm lens, from two nearly orthogonal directions. The serpentine spring that connects the lens frame to the external frame is tailored to offer similar spring constants in the directions of actuation and has minimal (<1.5 mm) sag due to the mass of the lens. The manufactured actuator was integrated on a miniaturized VLC test bed (70 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm). Using the test bed, we characterized the applied voltage versus beam displacement behavior of the actuator in the lateral plane and demonstrated beam steering on amoving target with face-recognition feedback. The proposed scheme was targeted to offer an improved security measure in VLC through tracking the legitimate receiver (i.e., via face recognition) and uses the feedback to steer the focused light onto the targeted device. The joint use of focusing and steering features allows for the legitimate receiver to roam within the room while enjoying the improved secrecy due to the focused light. We calculate the secrecy capacity for the demonstrated approach, which compares favorably with a number of jamming, spatial modulation, and beam-forming counterparts. The presented actuator can be used with larger room dimensions, yet upscaling to larger illumination units will require the use of a lens having smaller focus to address a larger total steering angle. (C) 2022 Optica Publishing Group