Ankara Esenboga International Airport (Turkey) fog analysis and synoptical investigation of the fog event dated 17-19 December 2019

Koyuncu R., Deniz A., Özdemir E. T.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY, vol.42, no.16, pp.8368-8389, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 16
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/joc.7728
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, PASCAL, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Geobase, Greenfile, INSPEC, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.8368-8389
  • Keywords: analysis, Esenboga Airport, fog, METAR, SPECI, synoptic, CLIMATOLOGY
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The aviation industry has developed greatly in recent years. Millions of people choose air transport as a means of transportation every year, and flight safety is critically important. However, meteorological conditions can cause disruptions in flight activities and lead to accidents. One of the meteorological conditions that adversely affect flight activities is fog. Prediction of fog incidents increases flight safety. In this study, fog analysis of Ankara Esenboga International Airport was carried out between 2011 and 2020. The data used in the fog analysis are taken from the observations of Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) and Aviation Selected Special Weather Report (SPECI). The distribution of fog events in a 10-year period was determined according to years, months, days, hours, meteorological parameters (wind, pressure, cloud cover/height, temperature, and prevailing view), and types. Over a 10-year period, 802.02 hr of fog occurred. The average number of foggy days was determined as 17.9. According to the fog formation types, the fogs occurring at Esenboga Airport were classified as 62% radiation fog, 14% lowering cloud base, 9% precipitation fog, 2% advection fog, and 12% unknown fog. CAT categories in the foggy hours of Esenboga Airport were determined. In cases where there were foggy observations for approach and landing activities during the 10-year period, these were found to be 40.34% according to CAT 1, 72.8% according to CAT II, 93.8% according to CAT IIIA, and 100% according to CAT IIIB. Synoptic analysis of a particular fog incident, which started at 2220 UTC on December 16 and continued for 55.83 hr, was also made. When the synoptic maps and Skew-T Log P diagrams were examined, the deepening of the high pressure center in and around Ankara and the low thermal advection caused a very stable atmosphere, resulting in a prolonged and intense fog event.