13th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED), Valencia, Spain, 11 - 13 March 2019, pp.1089-1097
The IMO (International Maritime Organisation) allocates significant efforts through conventions and other interventions of a legal nature to regulate the operational environments and requirements of training for crew working on board ships, as well as for personnel working ashore; these efforts are having a positive effect and the level of safety in relation to shipping operations has increased overtime. Although the number of oil spills across the world has a decreasing trend, risks posed by oil spills still remain as major concerns for societies, around the world. These concerns arise from the possible damages to ecology and economy, as well as by considering the adverse impacts related to sociocultural and psycho-social aspects. A risk when oil spills doesn't occur that often and then do and becomes of international character, is that operational personnel might lack field experience and be less prepared. Recent major accidents, such as the "Prestige" and "Deepwater Horizon" have emphasized the importance of the associated response activities and training needs amongst operational personnel.