in: Environmental Applications of Instrumental Chemical Analysis, Mahmood Barbooti, Editor, Taylor eBookstore , London, pp.1-24, 2015
The purpose of an analytical study is to obtain information about an object or substance [1-13]. The substance could be a solid, a liquid, a gas or a biological material. The information to be obtained can be varied. This information about analytical results is valid only if the sample represents the material of interest. To get varied information, we need instrumentation processes. Although there is much interest in such noninvasive devices, most analysis is still done by taking a part or portion of the object under study and analyzing it in the laboratory. Some basic steps are shown in Fig. 7.1. The other important tasks in environmental sampling also include filling in the chain-of-custody form, use of GPS to fix sample locations for a second time visit, soil sampling designs including grids (square and hexagonal) and stockpile sampling. Specific sampling plans for each type of pollutant should be considered. Measurement procedures, which include sampling and sample preparation, are closely related to the accuracy, representativeness and sensitivity of the results for an object or substance.