Abstract meaning representation of Turkish

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Oral E., Acar A., Eryiğit G.

NATURAL LANGUAGE ENGINEERING, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1017/s1351324922000183
  • Keywords: Abstract meaning representation, Semantic representation, Turkish, SEMANTIC ROLES, ANNOTATION, DEPENDENCY


The Abstract meaning representation (AMR) is a graph-based sentence-level meaning representation that has become highly popular in recent years. AMR is a knowledge-based meaning representation heavily relying on frame semantics for linking predicate frames and entity knowledge bases such as DBpedia for linking named entity concepts. Although it is originally designed for English, its adaptation to non-English languages is possible by defining language-specific divergences and representations. This article introduces the first AMR representation framework for Turkish, which poses diverse challenges for AMR due to its typological differences compared to English; agglutinative, free constituent order, morphologically highly rich resulting in fewer word surface forms in sentences. The introduced solutions to these peculiarities are expected to guide the studies for other similar languages and speed up the construction of a cross-lingual universal AMR framework. Besides this main contribution, the article also presents the construction of the first AMR corpus of 700 sentences, the first AMR parser (i.e., a tree-to-graph rule-based AMR parser) used for semi-automatic annotation, and the evaluation of the introduced resources for Turkish.