Geological, geochemical and fluid inclusion features of Kömürlükdere and Göçükdibi Cu-Zn ore (Central Pontides, Turkey): Implications for their genesis

Yalçın C., HANİLÇİ N., Kumral M., Kaya M.

Geochemistry, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.chemer.2023.126005
  • Journal Name: Geochemistry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, Chemical Abstracts Core, Geobase, INSPEC, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Besshi-type, Central Pontides, Cu-Zn, Göçükdibi, Kömürlükdere, Stratiform, VMS
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The Kömürlükdere and Göçükdibi Cu-Zn ores are located in the Central Pontide orogenic belt, where Besshi-type deposits (such as Hanönü, Zeybek, Sayyayla [Kastamonu]) have been discovered in last two decades. The Göçükdibi and Kömürlükdere ores are hosted in metabasites and quartz schist that belong to the Middle Jurassic Kunduz metamorphic rocks in the accretionary complex in the Central Pontides. The ore bodies show stratiform features, parallel to schistosity, within an alternation of metabasite and quartz schist succession. The average thicknesses of the ore zone and ore levels within the ore zone are 12 m and 3 cm, respectively. The ore bodies contain chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and magnetite, with dominant pyrite formed during the ore formation phase. Meanwhile, hematite, covellite, malachite, and goethite minerals formed during the supergene processes. Microprobe studies showed that the Fe and Cd content of sphalerite varies from 0.08 to 1.12 wt%, indicating Fe-poor sphalerite, and 0.08–0.27 wt%, respectively. The Zn/Cd ratios (average 274.4 for Kömürlükdere, 288.6 for Göçükdibi) of the sphalerite are comparable to those of the worldwide volcanogenic-massive sulfide (VMS) ore system related to andesitic-basaltic source rocks. The Co/Ni ratio (mean 3.2) of pyrite shows volcanogenic pyrite. The average δ34S of the stratiform pyrites is 3.9 ‰ (ranging from 2.06 ‰ to 5.34 ‰), indicating that the sulfur comes from a large homogeneous source, possibly magmatic. The average homogenization temperature (Th) and salinity of fluid inclusions obtained from quartz and sphalerite are 313 °C and 7.7 % equiv. NaCl, respectively, and similar to those of the global VMS deposits. The metabasites contain an average of 164 ppm Cu, 127 ppm Zn, and 2.2 ppm Sb, which shows enrichment several times greater than the background value of the basalts. Meanwhile the ore levels contain an average 0.23 % and 0.83 % Cu and Zn values, respectively. The trace metal enrichment of associated metabasites and the ore zones is evident for elements such as Cu, Zn, Cd, As, and Sb, indicating that they both precipitated in the same basin as syngenetic, and that there was repeated pulses of metal-rich fluids exhaled into the basin. Field observations and analytical data (mineral chemistry, sulfur isotope, fluid inclusion, etc.) show that the Kömürlükdere and Göçükdibi Cu-Zn ore bodies occurred as Besshi-type deposits within the Middle Jurassic Central Pontide Supercontinent, which developed in the marine environment appropriate to the accretionary complex located along the southern margin of Eurasia.