Improved ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by the phase inversion technique via immersion precipitation of synthesized carboxylic acid containing polyamide (CPA) and polyethersulfone (PES) in dimethylacetamide. The CPA was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. Next, the influence of CPA adding and its different concentrations on the performances and membrane structure were investigated. The obtained membranes were characterized by means of FTIR in the attenuated total reflection mode, scanning electron microscopy, and contact angle. The membrane performance studies revealed that the presence of CPA in the membrane structure increased water permeability while reducing protein fouling. It turned out that the PES/CPA membranes had better porosity, more hydrophilic surface, and more vertically finger-like pores in comparison with the bare PES membrane. When the CPA concentration in the blending solution reached 1 wt%, the water permeability increased from 7.3 to 153.6 L/m(2) h(1). The attenuated total reflection-FTIR analysis confirmed that CPA was captured in the membrane matrix.