Combining different material processing techniques is one of the keys to obtain materials that depict synergistic properties. In this review, we have reviewed a combination of two highly potential techniques, namely, electrospinning and atomic layer deposition (ALD), in the view of various applications. Over the past 10 years, our research groups are involved in the exploration of employing this combination for a range of applications. We also include some basic information on both the processes and diversity of nanostructures as a result of their combination. Nonwoven nanofiber membranes are excellent candidates for a wide range of applications. Also, they can act as templates to produce various other kinds of nanostructures when combined with ALD in small/large scale production. These nanostructures could be used as such or further subjected to other processing techniques yielding hierarchical structures. In this review, we exclusively survey and highlight the unique capabilities of combined electrospinning and ALD for applications in catalysis, photocatalysis, solar cells, batteries and gas sensors.