XPS investigations of tribolayers formed on TiN and (Ti,Re)N coatings

Oktay S., KAHRAMAN Z., Urgen M. K., KAZMANLI K.

APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, vol.328, pp.255-261, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 328
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.12.023
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.255-261
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


TiN and (Ti,Re)N coatings were deposited on high-speed-steel substrates by a hybrid coating system composed of cathodic arc PVD and magnetron sputtering techniques. In order to keep rhenium content low (8 +/- 1.9 at.%) in the coating, magnetron sputtering technique was utilized to evaporate rhenium. The (Ti,Re)N coating consisted of TiN and ReNx (x > 1.33) phases. The hardness of TiN and (Ti,Re)N were 31 GPa and 29 GPa (+/- 2 GPa), respectively. Tribological behaviors of the samples were tested against Al2O3 balls at 21 degrees C (RT) and 150 degrees C (HT) by reciprocating wear technique. The tribolayers were analyzed by XPS technique. Friction coefficients of TiN were 0.56, 0.35 for 21 degrees C and 150 degrees C tests, respectively. Rhenium addition to TiN drastically dropped the friction coefficients to 0.22 and 0.17 for RT and HT samples. Rhenium addition also improved the wear resistance of the coating at both test temperatures. For TiN, main oxide component of the tribolayers was Ti2O3 for RT tests and TiO2 for HT tests. The oxide layer formed on (Ti,Re)N were the mixture of TiO2, Ti-O-N, ReO2 and Re2O7 for both test temperatures. Re2O7 provided very low friction coefficient to (Ti,Re)N. The findings are consistent with the crystal chemistry approach. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.