Wearable Piezoelectric Airflow Transducers for Human Respiratory and Metabolic Monitoring

Jin L., Liu Z., Altıntaş M., Zheng Y., Liu Z., Yao S., ...More

ACS Sensors, vol.7, no.8, pp.2281-2292, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acssensors.2c00824
  • Journal Name: ACS Sensors
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Chemical Abstracts Core, Compendex, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.2281-2292
  • Keywords: airflow transducer, PLLA, respiratory flow, lung volume, metabolic rate, RESTING ENERGY-EXPENDITURE, INDIRECT CALORIMETER, ACCELEROMETRY, TECHNOLOGY, VALIDATION, NEEDS
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.Despite the importance of respiration and metabolism measurement in daily life, they are not widely available to ordinary people because of sophisticated and expensive equipment. Here, we first report a straightforward and economical approach to monitoring respiratory function and metabolic rate using a wearable piezoelectric airflow transducer (WPAT). A self-shielded bend sensor is designed by sticking two uniaxially drawn piezoelectric poly l-lactic acid films with different cutting angles, and then the bend sensor is mounted on one end of a plastic tube to engineer the WPAT. The airflow sensing principle of the WPAT is theoretically determined through finite element simulation, and the WPAT is calibrated with a pulse calibration method. We prove that the WPAT has similar accuracy (correlation coefficient >0.99) to a pneumotachometer in respiratory flow and lung volume assessment. We demonstrate metabolism measurement using the WPAT and the relationship between minute volume and metabolic rates via human wear trials. The mean difference of measured metabolic rates between the WPAT and a Biopac indirect calorimeter is 0.015 kcal/min, which shows comparable performance. Significantly, unlike the Biopac indirect calorimeter with an airflow sensor, an oxygen gas sensor, and a carbon dioxide gas sensor, we merely use the simple-structured WPAT to measure metabolism. Thus, we expect the WPAT technology to provide a precise, convenient, and cost-effective respiratory and metabolic monitoring solution for next-generation medical home care applications and wearable healthcare systems.