Surface characterization and antibacterial efficiency of well-ordered TiO2 nanotube surfaces fabricated on titanium foams

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Durdu S., Sivlin D., Ozcan K., Kalkan S., Keleş Ö., Usta M.

Scientific Reports, vol.14, no.1, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1038/s41598-024-51339-6
  • Journal Name: Scientific Reports
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, Chemical Abstracts Core, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Titanium (Ti)-based implants are not compatible enough due to their bio-inert character, insufficient antibacterial capabilities and stress-shielding problem for dental and orthopaedic implant applications. Thus, this work focused to fabricate, analyze and improve antibacterial properties titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube array surfaces on Ti foam by anodic oxidation (AO) process. The well-ordered nanotube arrays with approximately 75 nm were successfully fabricated at 40 V for 1 h on Ti foams. Ti and O were observed as major elements on AO-coated Ti foam surfaces. In addition, the existence of TiO2 structure was proved on AO-coated foam Ti surfaces. For potential dental and orthopedic implant application, in vitro antibacterial properties were investigated versus Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. For both bacteria, antibacterial properties of TiO2 nanotube surface were greater than bare Ti foam. The bacterial inhibition versus Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli of TiO2 nanotube surfaces are improved as 53.3% and 69.4% compared to bare Ti foam.