The objective of this study was to assess the operational feasibility of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), consisting of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor coupled to an ultrafiltration membrane unit, at two operational temperatures (25 degrees C and 15 degrees C) for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The results showed that membrane fouling at 15 degrees C was more severe than that at 25 degrees C. Higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) and soluble microbial products (SMP) concentrations, lower mean particle diameter, and higher turbidity in the UASB effluent at lower temperature aggravated membrane fouling compared to the 25 degrees C operation. However, the overall AnMBR treatment performance was not significantly affected by temperature, which was attributed to the physical membrane barrier. Cake resistance was found responsible for over 40% of the total fouling in both cases. However, an increase was observed in the contribution of pore blocking resistance at 15 degrees C related to the larger amount of fine particles in the UASB effluent compared to 25 degrees C. Based on the overall results, it is concluded that an AnMBR, consisting of a UASB coupled membrane unit, is not found technically feasible for the treatment of municipal wastewater at 15 degrees C, considering the rapid deterioration of the filtration performance. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.