This study aimed to investigate the beneficial reuse of paper mill sludge as landfill cover and bottom liner material in municipal solid waste landfills. For this purpose, two-dimensional finite element analyses of a typical landfill geometry were carried out using PLAXIS finite element program. The results of the analyses were evaluated in terms of displacement and factor of safety (FS) values, and compared with those of the compacted clay. The results of this study showed that, vertical and lateral displacements of the landfill slightly increased while the FS of the landfill slopes decreased with increasing surface loading. However, for all the cases studied, lower vertical and lateral displacements and higher FS values were obtained for the landfills with paper mill sludge as the cover and bottom liner material in comparison to those of the compacted clay. Besides, for all the cases studied, FS values greater than 1.5 were obtained, indicating that the landfill slopes were stable under the proposed loadings and landfill cover and bottom liner materials. Based on these results, it can be stated that the paper mill sludge examined in this paper has geotechnical properties that are desirable for a landfill cover and bottom liner material for use as a substitute of compacted clay in municipal solid waste landfills.