Archaeal diversity in Lake Acigol, a closed-basin, alkaline, hypersaline lake located at the northern edge of western Tourides in southwest Anatolia, was investigated using culture-independent methods. Microbial mat samples were collected from six different points. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries were generated using domain specific oligonucleotide primers, and 16S rRNA gene sequences of clone libraries were analyzed phylogenetically. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA genes showed a variance in diversity with spatial differences. Archaeal diversity of Acigol is dominated by the members of family Halobacteriaceae which requires both high salt concentration and high pH for growth. Sequence analysis of archaeal 16s rRNA genes indicates the presence of the phylotypes affiliated with the genera Halorubrum, Halosimplex, Halorhabdus, Haloterrigena and Natronococcus in the analyzed samples.