Pectin is a structural polysaccharide present in plants that primarily consists of galacturonic acid units. This Review discusses the chemistry of pectin, including its composition and molecular weight. Pectin is conventionally extracted from agricultural waste (fruit and vegetable peels) using an acidic or basic aqueous medium at high temperatures. These processes are time- and energy-consuming and also result in severe environmental problems due to the production of acidic effluents and equipment corrosion. As pectin usage is increasing in food industries for developing different products and it is also used as an excipient in pharmaceutical products, better extraction procedures are required to maximize the yield and purity. The Review encompasses various alternate green approaches for the extraction of pectin, including traditional acid extraction and various emerging technologies such as deep eutectic solvent-based extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, subcritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and microwave-based extraction, and evaluates the yield and physicochemical characteristics of the extracted pectin. This work aims to provide a platform for attracting more thorough research focused on the engineering of novel and more efficient green methods for the extraction of pectin and its utilization for various biotechnological purposes.