Discharge coefficient equation to calculate the leakage from pipe networks

Ekmekcioğlu Ö., Başakın E. E., Özger M.

Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology , vol.10, no.3, pp.1737-1746, 2020 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)


With the increasing of urbanization, water distribution networks play an important role in human life and the effective use of water resources. Therefore, studies have been made for the optimization of water distribution networks in some fields such as pressure management and leakage control. In this context, the discharge coefficient, which is one of the components of the hydraulic calculations, is a very significant parameter in calculating the losses. In this study, a new equation has been proposed to calculate the discharge coefficient. Computer simulations were done by using ANSYS Fluent and discharge coefficient values were determined for round holes. Firstly, the model validated with theoretical Toricelli (orifice) equation and then, the model was run for number of scenarios according to various internal pressure and hole areas. The model results were formulated by means of regression equations. To satisfy the dimensional homogeneity, the ratio of the hole area to the pipe cross-sectional area, area ratio (r), and the ratio of the internal pressure to the external pressure, pressure ratio (p), were used. In this study, easy to use discharge coefficient equation was proposed to calculate the leakage losses in water distribution networks. With the help of this equation, the discharge coefficient can be calculated precisely for different pressure values and leakage areas rather thantaken as a constant value. Thus, the calculation of the leakage flow rate will be more accurate. Furthermore, it is concluded that the dicharge coefficient varies between 0.65 and 0.72. There is also inverse realtionship between discharge coefficient and pressure and discharge coefficient and leakage area.