This paper presents the radiological and heavy metal risk assessment to evaluate the impact of coal-fired power plants on humans and the environment in Turkey. Radiological evaluation was performed in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. For the freshwater reference organisms, total dose rates for insect larvae, mollusc bivalve, and gastropod, and zooplankton show radiological risk. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, contamination factor, ecological risk, and geoaccumulation index for heavy metal risk assessment are the aspects of interest. Long-term exposure of children to heavy metals in coal may cause non-carcinogenic harmful effects.