Journal of Turbulence, vol.24, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
Reducing skin friction has a key role in the efficiency of rail, highway, and airway transport vehicles or naval systems such as ships and underwater vehicles. In recent years, there is a growing interest in investigating turbulent drag-reducing capabilities of dimpled surfaces, which have great potential as a passive solution, while there still exists highly conflicting views and drag reduction rates reported in the literature as well as a lack of information about the drag reduction mechanism. In this study, large-eddy simulations (LES) were performed to investigate the characteristics and physical mechanism of the fluid flow over dimpled surfaces in a fully developed channel flow. The Reynolds number based on the channel height and the mean bulk velocity was nearly 5600 for all cases examined. Within the framework of the study, various dimple depth to diameter ratios as well as different dimple arrangements and geometries were considered. The detailed mean and instantaneous flow fields, turbulent kinetic energy budget and spectral characteristics of the flow are presented. The study revealed the potential of the dimpled surface in reducing skin friction and provided critical information about the flow features affecting the performance of the dimples.