The North Anatolian Fault showed a remarkable seismic activity especially between 1939 and 1999, when the westward migrating earthquake sequence created surface ruptures more than 1000 km, leaving unbroken only the Marmara segments, to the west, and the Yedisu Segment, to the east along the main strand of the fault. To understand the palaeoseismicity of the Yedisu Seismic Gap, we undertook trench investigations close to the village of Balaban SarA +/- kaya, on the western part of the Yedisu Segment. We found evidence for at least five surface faulting earthquakes, from which only two are correlated with the 18 July 1784 CE and 27 June 1583 CE historical events. Although the surface rupture of the 1784 CE was reported by other trench studies, the evidence of 1583 CE event is presented for the first time. In consideration with other historical earthquakes, affecting the region east of Erzincan, we suggest that this particular section of the North Anatolian Fault may be in a seismically quiescent period, following a cluster of earthquakes in its near history. In order to test this hypothesis, further studies are needed to increase our knowledge on the temporal and spatial seismic behaviour of the Yedisu Segment, which has potential to create an earthquake with M (w) similar to 7.2 in the near future.