This study reports the influences of metallic cobalt (Co) and mechanical alloying (MA) on the microstructural and mechanical properties of TiB2 ceramics prepared by using a combined method of cold pressing and sintering. The effects of Co addition (0, 5, 10 and 20 wt.%) and mechanical alloying duration (0, 3, 6 and 9h) on the properties of TiB2 ceramics were investigated. MA experiments were carried out in a Spex (TM) 8000D Mixer/Mill and milled powders were subsequently compacted to cylindrical preforms by uniaxial pressing at 400 MPa. The green compacts were sintered in a controlled atmosphere at 1550 degrees C for 1 h. Phase and microstructural characterizations of the mechanically alloyed (MA'd) and sintered samples were performed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Density measurements were conducted using Archimedes method. Vickers hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness of the sintered samples were measured using Indentation technique. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.