Borides and carbides attract the attention of developers of heat-resistant and super hard structural materials due to a unique combination of their resistance to high-temperature oxidation, high hardness, wear resistance, electrical and thermal conductivity and etc. The article presents experimental results on obtaining composites based on TiB2-TiC-Al2O3, CrB2-Al2O3 by a method combining self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and mechanical activation (MA). The influence of the composition of the initial components, the conditions of SHS and preliminary MA on the formation of the microstructure and phase composition of the SHS-composite based on titanium carbide and titanium, chromium borides has been studied. The SHS products were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis and a scanning electron microscope. High-temperature phases of borides of chromium, titanium, aluminum oxide and their spinel are found in SHS products.