Temperature, air and water are the common factors that profoundly affect the durability of asphalt concrete mixtures. In mild weather conditions, distresses such as permanent deformation, fatigue cracking can be encountered on the pavements due to traffic loading. But when a severe climate is in question, these stresses increase in poor materials; under inadequate control; with traffic as well as with water which are key elements in the degradation of asphalt concrete pavements. Many variables affect the amount of water damage in asphalt concrete layer. Among them, mixture design properties such as air void level, permeability, asphalt content and asphalt film thickness are the ones that must be investigated carefully.