Rice crops are important in the global food economy, and new techniques are being implemented for their effective management. These techniques rely mainly on the changes in the phenological cycle, which can be investigated by remote sensing systems. High frequency and high spatial resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors have great potential in all-weather conditions for detecting temporal phenological changes. This study focuses on a novel approach for growth stage determination of rice fields from SAR data using a parameter space search algorithm. The method employs an inversion scheme for a morphology-based electromagnetic backscattering model. Since such a morphology-based model is complicated and computationally expensive, a surrogate metamodel-based inversion algorithm is proposed for the growth stage estimation. The approach is designed to provide estimates of crop morphology and corresponding growth stage from a continuous growth scale. The accuracy of the proposed method is tested with ground measurements from Turkey and Spain using the images acquired by the TerraSAR-X (TSX) sensor during a full growth cycle of rice crops. The analysis shows good agreement for both datasets. The results of the proposed method emphasize the effectiveness of X-band PolSAR data for morphology-based growth stage determination of rice crops.