NUMERICAL ALGEBRA CONTROL AND OPTIMIZATION, vol.12, pp.353-371, 2022 (ESCI)
The paper deals with the controllability and observability of second order discrete linear time varying and linear time-invariant continuous systems in matrix form. To this case, we generalize the classical conditions for linear systems of the first order, without reducing them to systems of the first order. Within the framework of Kalman-type criteria, we investigate these concepts for second-order linear systems with discrete / continuous time; we define the initial values and input functions uniquely if and only if the observability and controllability matrices have full rank, respectively. Also a conceptual partner of controllability, that is, reachability of second order discrete time-varying systems is formulated and a necessary and sufficient condition for complete reachability is derived. Also the transfer function of the second order continuous-time linear state-space system is constructed. We have given numerical examples to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the theoretical results obtained.