The optical, thermal and electrochemical properties of co-polymer films grown, from acrylamide and carbazole monomer mixtures, by electrochemical oxidation in protic and aprotic media have been studied. The availability of protons in the solution is found to enhance not only the growth rate of the co-polymer but also the electrochemical behaviour of the co-polymer films. This is especially so for the thicker films and is due to the relative ease of cation injection (as opposed to loss of anions) in maintaining electroneutrality of the polymer matrix during electrochemical reduction. The optical properties of the layers appear to be independent of the growth medium and starting Acrylamide:Carbazole (AAm:Cz) ratio in that similar values of the refractive index n are obtained (n = 1.59 +/- 0.02) for all the films grown, from AAm:Cz ratios ranging from 80:1 to 1:10. Thermal analysis studies over the temperature range 25-400 degrees C show that the 15-25 wt.% losses recorded over this region are associated with the stabilisation, through cross-linking, of the polymer and not with thermal degradation. This stabilisation appears to increase with the amount of carbazole incorporated within the polymer matrix. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.