In this study, the anaerobic treatment of high-strength antibiotic production wastewater and the development of a mathematical model for the treatment were attempted. Anaerobic treatability was investigated using synthetic solutions and original wastewater of which the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) was determined. Initial COD of solutions was increased from 3,000 to 43,000 mg O-2/liter in an anaerobic bioreactor. The bioreactor pH was maintained at 6.5-7.5. The temperature was kept constant at 37 +/- 1degreesC. Raw materials and original wastewater containing penicillin antibiotics were obtained from Fako Pharmaceutical Factory (Fako) in Istanbul, Turkey. Anaerobic sludge used for treatment was obtained from Pakmaya Baker's Yeast Producing Factory (Pakmaya) in Izmit, Turkey and the Fako. A mathematical model based on substrate (total COD) concentration was developed assuming that only three consecutive reactions, namely, hydrolysis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis, are significant. From the experimental data, a model that can be used for COD calculation as a function of time was developed using the first- and the second-order kinetic approaches. Making use of the developed model equation, it was proved that the anaerobic treatment of high strength (COD > 25,000 mg O-2/liter) antibiotic production wastewater fits the second-order kinetics.