Land surface temperature (LST) is an essential parameter for studying environmental and ecological processes and climate change at various scales. It is also valuable for studies of evapotranspiration, soil moisture conditions, surface energy balance, and urban heat islands. Since meteorological station data can provide a limited number of point data, satellite images that provide high temporal and spatial resolution LST data in large areas are needed to be used in all these applications. In this study, the usage of satellite-derived LST images was investigated in comparison with meteorological station data measurements in Istanbul, which has heterogeneous urban structures. LST data were obtained from Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS, and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud platform. The linear correlation analysis performed between Landsat LST and MODIS LST images gave a high correlation (r = 0.88). In the correlation analysis, hourly air temperature and soil temperature meteorology station data provided by the State Meteorological Service and LST values obtained from images taken from Landsat TM/TIRS and Terra MODIS were used. The correlations between air temperatures and Landsat LST ranged from 0.47–0.95 for 1987–2017 to 0.44–0.80 for MODIS LST for 2000–2017. The correlations between 5 cm soil temperatures and Landsat LST ranged from 0.76–0.93 for 2009–2017 to 0.22–0.61 for MODIS LST 2000–2017. In addition, linear regression models produced with meteorological parameters and LST values were applied to 2022 LST maps to show the spatial distribution of these parameters, and then, accuracy analyses were made.